Animals your child should know, from P to Z, with videos of their corresponding sign:
- Teddy bear
Animals your child should know, from P to Z, with videos of their corresponding sign:
Animals your child should know, from E to O, and in
*These words are selected from the MacArthur-Bates CDI Words and Sentences assessment.
Animals (A to D) that your child should know:
*These words were taken from the MacArthur-Bates CDI Words and Sentences assessment.
Here’s the lowdown on all the abbreviations and words you often hear:
ABR or auditory brainstem response
The auditory brainstem response (ABR) test gives information about the inner ear (cochlea) and brain pathways for hearing. This test is also sometimes referred to as auditory evoked potential (AEP). The test can be used with children or others who have a difficult time with conventional behavioral methods of hearing screening. The ABR is also indicated for a person with signs, symptoms, or complaints suggesting a type of hearing loss in the brain or a brain pathway.
The ABR is performed by pasting electrodes on the head—similar to electrodes placed around the heart when an electrocardiogram is run—and recording brain wave activity in response to sound. The person being tested rests quietly or sleeps while the test is performed. No response is necessary. ABR can also be used as a screening test in newborn hearing screening programs. When used as a screening test, only one intensity or loudness level is checked, and the baby either passes or fails the screen.
Auditory Steady State Response (ASSR) is a test used to determine hearing loss in children who are either too young to respond or are unable to respond. Most children are referred for an ASSR after a newborn hearing screen in the hospital indicates the possibility of hearing loss. This test is typically performed at the same time as the ABR (Auditory Brainstem Response).
The audiologist will scrub the skin where four electrodes will be placed (forehead and behind the ears). Once your child is sleeping, the audiologist will place small ear phones into his or her ears that will play tones of varying frequency (pitch) and intensity (loudness). This sound travels from your child’s ears to the brain (through the auditory pathway) where it is recorded through the electrodes. ASSR provides an accurate, frequency-specific estimate of the behavioral pure-tone audiogram.
Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are sounds given off by the inner ear when the cochlea is stimulated by a sound. When sound stimulates the cochlea, the outer hair cells vibrate. The vibration produces a nearly inaudible sound that echoes back into the middle ear. The sound can be measured with a small probe inserted into the ear canal.
People with normal hearing produce emissions. Those with hearing loss greater than 25–30 decibels (dB) do not produce these very soft sounds. The OAE test is often part of a newborn hearing screening program. This test can detect blockage in the outer ear canal, as well as the presence of middle ear fluid and damage to the outer hair cells in the cochlea.
Otoscopy is an examination that involves looking into the ear with an instrument called an otoscope (or auriscope). This is performed in order to examine the ‘external auditory canal’ – the tunnel that leads from the outer ear (pinna) to the eardrum.
Inspection of the eardrum can also provide a lot of information about what’s happening within the middle ear – the space within the skull where the hearing and balance mechanisms are situated.
The examination is performed by gently pulling the outer part of the ear upwards and backwards. This action straightens the external auditory canal, which has a natural curve, and makes it easier to see the eardrum.
The normal external auditory canal has some hair, often lined with yellow to brown wax. The total length of the ear canal in adults is approximately 2cm, which gives it a resonance frequency of approximately 3400 Hz, which is an important frequency region for understanding speech.
Abnormal findings may include:
Tympanometry is an examination used to test the condition of the middle ear and mobility of the eardrum (tympanic membrane) and the conduction bones by creating variations of air pressure in the ear canal.
Tympanometry is an objective test of middle-ear function. It is not a hearing test, but rather a measure of energy transmission through the middle ear. The test should not be used to assess the sensitivity of hearing and the results of this test should always be viewed in conjunction with pure tone audiometry.
Tympanometry is a valuable component of the audiometric evaluation. In evaluating hearing loss, tympanometry permits a distinction between sensorineural and conductive hearing loss, when evaluation is not apparent via Weber and Rinne testing. Furthermore, in a primary care setting, tympanometry can be helpful in making the diagnosis of otitis media by demonstrating the presence of a middle ear effusion.
Acoustic reflex measures add information about the possible location of the hearing problem. Everyone has an acoustic reflex to sounds. A tiny muscle in the middle ear contracts when a loud sound occurs. The loudness level at which the acoustic reflex occurs—or the absence of the acoustic reflex—gives information to the audiologist about the type of hearing loss.
BOA or Behavioral Observation Audiometry
BOA tests hearing by provoking a behavioral response to an acoustic stimulus. Used for infants from birth through seven months, the patient is observed for responses such as body movement, eye widening, eye opening or change in sucking rate after a stimulus is provided. This test is used to rule out hearing loss and related conditions
VRA or Visual Reinforcement Audiometry
During VRA, the child uses earphones or sits between two speakers from which certain sounds are presented. A tone, speech or music may be played in order to encourage the child to respond by shifting their eyes or turning their head. When the child responds to the stimulus, they are rewarded with an interesting visual display, such as an animated toy. VRA performed with headphones can test each ear separately, while testing without headphones evaluates the child’s sound field instead. This test is ideal for children between the ages of seven and thirty months.
Conditioned play audiometry can be used as the child matures and is commonly used with toddlers and preschoolers (ages 2–5). The child is trained to perform an activity each time a sound is heard. The activity may involve putting a block in a box, placing pegs in a hole, or putting a ring on a cone.
Bone conduction testing
If there is a blockage, such as wax or fluid, in the outer or middle ears, a method called pure- tone bone conduction testing may be used. With this technique, the blockage is bypassed by sending a tone through a small vibrator placed behind the ear (or on the forehead). The signal reaches the inner ear (or cochlea) directly through gentle vibrations of the skull. This testing can measure response of the inner ear to sound independently of the outer and middle ears. In these cases, this test helps the audiologist determine the type of hearing loss being measured.
Executive function is a set of mental processes that helps connect past experience with present action. People use it to perform activities such as:
In school, at home or in the workplace, we’re called on all day, every day, to self-regulate behavior. Executive function allows us to:
A student may have problems with executive function when he or she has trouble:
Lanie is a year old, whose parents just found out she is deaf. They have just chosen ASL as her modality…
Lanie is sitting in her high chair with mom, Linda, who is feeding her. Linda is doing her best to push in as much language every day as she possibly can, but she’s learning ASL along with Lanie and has become very confused and frustrated with the difference in ASL’s grammatical structure. Linda wonders, How will we learn this language at the same rate Lanie is? Have we made the right choice?
Linda has been carrying a world of guilt on her shoulders. Asking herself constantly, How did I not know that my child was deaf? How did I miss this?
Below is an excerpt from the Marcus Autism Center website. For more information, visit http://www.marcus.org.
“Marcus Autism Center is a not-for-profit organization and subsidiary of Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta that treats more than 5,500 children with autism and related disorders a year.
As one of the largest autism centers in the U.S. and one of only three National Institutes of Health (NIH) Autism Centers of Excellence, Marcus Autism Center offers families access to the latest research, comprehensive evaluations and intensive behavior treatments. With the help of research grants, community support and government funding, Marcus Autism Center aims to maximize the potential of children with autism today and transform the nature of autism for future generations.
With a wide spectrum of services and evidence-based treatments, families can receive diagnosis, treatment and support in a single location. Treating patients across Georgia and the Southeast, Marcus Autism Center is the comprehensive resourcefor children with autism and related disorders.
Marcus Autism Center, in conjunction with Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta and through collaborations with premier academic institutions nationwide, is bringing groundbreaking research and clinical services to children and families affected by autism.
With the appointment of Ami Klin, Ph.D., Director of Marcus Autism Center, we are pursuing an overarching research strategy, with two main areas of focus—early detection and early intervention. This will be accomplished, in part, by Dr. Klin’s eye-tracking software, which has been shown to diagnose children as young as 6 months old. We hope that this will help future generations of children get the care they need.”
Stephanie is 8 years old. She was identified at 1 ½ years old with a moderate hearing loss. She was diagnosed at 5 years old with autism. Her parents, Dan and Shelly, work full time and they just welcomed a newborn to their family. Stephanie attends school at the public school down the street from her house.
Dan is out of town on business, and Shelly is scrambling to get Stephanie out the door on time. Her bus arrives at 7:30 and Stephanie is just now getting dressed. Shelly tries to get Stephanie to move more quickly, but Shelly is also holding a crying newborn. Juggling two children has proved more difficult than Shelly imagined. In the hustle and bustle of the morning, she forgets to put new batteries in Stephanie’s hearing aids.
Lately, with things being more hectic around their home, Stephanie’s progress has waned and Dan and Shelly are concerned. Stephanie is not reading on grade level and the other children in her class are making age-appropriate academic gains. They are on the waiting list at the Marcus Autism Center’s Language and Learning Clinic, where Stephanie will receive services to help her improve her communication and social skills.
American Sign Language (ASL) is a visual language. With signing, the brain processes linguistic information through the eyes. The shape, placement, and movement of the hands, as well as facial expressions and body movements, all play important parts in conveying information.
Sign language is not a universal language — each country has its own sign language, and regions have dialects, much like the many languages spoken all over the world. Like any spoken language, ASL is a language with its own unique rules of grammar and syntax. Like all languages, ASL is a living language that grows and changes over time.
ASL is used predominantly in the United States and in many parts of Canada. ASL is accepted by many high schools, colleges, and universities in fulfillment of modern and “foreign” language academic degree requirements across the United States.
National Association of the Deaf
What does this language look like?
Check out AMP (Accessible Materials Project), which is based in Georgia. AMP provides video for those who use ASL or who are learning ASL. One of their many videos can be found here, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CnQY1aKWrFE. This video presents sight words in written English and in ASL. Words are fingerspelled and signed.
Below is a list of sign language interpreter services in Georgia.
Communication Access Network, Inc.
Provides comprehensive communications services through a network of interpreters and independent consultants.
Georgia Interpreting Services Network
Contact: Marilyn Teague (Senior Assignment Coordinator), email@example.com
Non-profit organization providing certified sign language interpreting 24/7/365 for all of Georgia since 1987.
Georgia Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf, Inc.
The Interpreting Connection, Inc.
1706 Tree Corners Parkway
Norcross, GA 30092-3129
Contact: Debbie Lesser (founder), firstname.lastname@example.org
Don Clark and Associates, Inc.
4651 Woodstock Road, Suite 208
Roswell, GA 30075
Sign language interpreting services. “Where words have meaning.”
Medley Interpreters, LLC
quality . communication . connections
National Alliance of Black Interpreters, Inc.
Sign Language Interpreting Specialists, Inc.
130C John Morrow Parkway
Gainesville, GA 30501-3569
770-531-0700 (voice), 770-287-9479 (TTY)}
Contact: Ruth Dubin, email@example.com
Sign language interpreting services available 24 hours a day, 365 days a year for all settings (e.g. medical, legal, educational).